None: Chapter 207

The colloquy between the Brahmana and the Fowler

मार्कण्डेय उवाच चिन्तयित्वा तदाश्चर्यं स्त्रिया प्रोक्तमशेषतः। विनिन्दन् स स्वमात्मानमागस्कृत इवाबभौ॥
Markandeya said : Continuously meditating upon that wonder, which the woman had told and reproaching himself very often, he appeared as if he was a criminal.

चिन्तयानः स्वधर्मस्य सूक्ष्मां गतिमथाब्रवीत्। श्रद्दधानेन वै भाव्यं गच्छामि मिथिलामहम्॥
Thus meditating upon the fine way of virtue, he said, I should, indeed, respectfully agree to her speech; and, therefore, go at once to Mithila.

कृतात्मा धर्मवित् तस्यां व्याधो निवसते किला तं गच्छाम्यहमद्यैव धर्मं प्रष्टुं तपोधनम्॥
Surely there lives in that city a fowler, who possess a soul under complete control and who also is thoroughly versed in the principles of morality. This day I will go to him, who possesses wealth of asceticism in order to ask him about the principles of morality.

इति संचित्य मनसा श्रद्दधानः स्त्रिया वचः। बलाकाप्रत्ययेनासौ धयश्च वचनैः शुभैः॥ सम्प्रतस्थे स मिथिलां कौतूहलसमन्वितः।
Thus meditating in his mind and relying upon the statement of the woman, which was ensured by her knowledge of the death of the female crane, as also by her happy discourse bearing upon the principles of virtue, he (Kaushika), being filled with curiosity.

अतिक्रामनरण्यानि ग्रामांश्च नगराणि चा॥ ततो जगाम मिथिलां जनकेन सुरक्षिताम्। धर्मसेतुसमाकीर्णां यज्ञोत्सववती शुभाम्॥
(He) departed to Mithila and crossed over forests, villages and cities. Then at last he came to Mithila, which was governed by king Janaka. The city was decorated with the flags hoisted by men of various creeds. It was echoed with the sound of sacrifices and festive celebrations. Also the city looked most beautiful.

गोपुराट्टालकवती हर्म्यप्राकारशोभनाम्। प्रविश्य नगरी रम्यां विमानैर्बहुभिर्युताम्॥
Having entered that beautiful city, he saw that it was adorned with magnificent porches, buildings and splendid palaces, and protected on all sides by lofty walls and also filled with numberless cars.

पण्यैश्च बहुभिर्युक्तां सुविभक्तमहापथाम्। अश्वै रथैस्तथा नागैर्योधैश्च बहुभिर्युताम्॥
The city was traversed by several broad roads, lined with innumerable shops. It was also covered over with innumerable horses, cars, elephants and warriors.

हृष्टपुष्टजनाकीर्णां नित्योत्सवसमाकुलाम्। सोऽपश्यद् बहुवृत्तान्तां ब्राह्मण: समतिक्रमन्॥
The Brahmana saw the town full of men, who were enjoying health and cheer and were always engaged in the celebration of festivities; as also he saw there various other things.

धर्मव्याधमपृच्छच्च स चास्य कथितो द्विजैः। अपश्यत् तत्र गत्वा तं सूनामध्ये व्यवस्थितम्॥
Having entered the city, he searched after the virtuous Fowler. Some regenerate persons pointed out to him the place, where he repaired and saw the Fowler seated in the midst of a butcher's yard.

मार्गमाहिषमांसानि विक्रीणन्तं तपस्विनम्। आकुलत्वाच्च क्रेतृणामेकान्ते संस्थितो द्विजः॥
The twice-born person stood at a distant corner; for the fowler, devoted to asceticism, was then selling venison and the flesh of the buffalo; and a large number of buyers gathered round him in right earnest.

स तु ज्ञात्वा द्विजं प्राप्तं सहसा सम्भ्रमोत्थितः। आजगाम यतो विप्रः स्थित एकान्तदर्शने॥
Understanding that the twice-born one had come to him, he (fowler) suddenly got up from his seat and went to the place, where the Brahmana was standing in seclusion.

व्याध उवाच अभिवादये त्वां भगवन् स्वागतं ते द्विजोत्तम्। अहं व्याधो हि भद्रं ते किं करोमि प्रशाधि माम्॥
The Fowler said: O virtuous one, O foremost of the regenerate ones, I salute you. You are welcome! I am the fowler. Indeed, be you happy! Command me what I will do for you.

एकपल्या यदुक्तोऽसि गच्छ त्वं मिथिलामिति। जानाम्येतदहं सर्वं यदर्थं त्वमिहागतः॥
The words, that a woman told to you, viz., you go to Mithila, are all known to me. I know also with what object you have come here.

श्रुत्वा च तस्य तद् वाक्यं स विप्रो भृशविस्मितः द्वितीयमिदमाश्चर्यमित्यचिन्तयत द्विजः॥
Hearing these words of his, the Brahmana became greatly astonished. The regenerate person went on meditating-Oh! this is the second marvel!

अदेशस्थं हि ते स्थानमिति व्याधोऽब्रवीदिदम्। गृहं गच्छाव भगवन् यदि ते रोचतेऽनघ॥
The fowler then addressed the Brahmana, saying-Indeed, you are now staying at a place, that is not at all proper for you. O holy one, O faultless one, should you like, let us go to my own abode.

मार्कण्डेय उवाच बाढमित्येव तं विप्रो हृष्टो वनचमब्रवीत्। अचतस्तु द्विजं कृत्वा स जगाम गृहं प्रति॥
Markandeya said : The Brahmana, highly gratified, addressed him, saying, "So be it". Making the Brahmana proceed before him, he (fowler) departed towards his own abode.

प्रविश्य च गृहं रम्यमासनेनाभिपूजितः। अर्येण च स वै तेन व्याधेन द्विजसत्तमः॥
Having entered his beautiful abode, he honoured him with a seat. Accepting the water that was given to him for washing the feet and face, the foremost of the regenerate ones.

ततः सुखोपविष्टस्तं व्याधं वचनमब्रवीत्। कर्मैतद् वै न सदृशं भवतः प्रतिभाति मे। अनुतप्ये भृशं तात तव घोरेण कर्मणा॥
Seated himself at his ease. Thereupon he addressed the fowler, saying, "It appears to me that this business is not really suitable to you. O father, I greatly regret that you should adopt such a dishonourable profession",

व्याध उवाच कुलोचितमिदं कर्म पितृपैतामहं परम्। वर्तमानस्य मे धर्मे स्वे मन्युं मा कृथा द्विज॥
The Fowler said: This profession belongs to my race; and it has descended to me from my father and grandfather. O twice-born one, do not be sorry for the reason of my adopting the profession that belongs to my own family.

विधात्रा विहित पूर्वं कर्म स्वमनुपालयन्। प्रयत्नाच्च गुरू वृद्धौ शुश्रूषेऽहं द्विजोत्तम॥
Fulfilling the duties of my own trade, to which I am already destined by the creator, I carefully devote myself, O best of the regenerate ones, to the service of my superiors as well as the old men.

सत्यं वदे नाभ्यसूये यथाशक्ति ददामि च। देवतातिथिभृत्यानामवशिष्टेन वर्तये॥
I always speak the truth; and I never envy other persons. As also I give away to the best of my power; and live upon what is left after the service of the gods, the guests and my own dependents.

न कुत्सयाम्यहं किंचिन्न गर्हे बलवत्तरम्। कृतमन्वेति कर्तारं पुरा कर्म द्विजोत्तम॥
I never speak evil of anything; neither I hate anything, however great. O best of the twiceborn persons, the actions done in the past existence always follow the doer.

कृषिगोरक्ष्यवाणिज्यमिह लोकस्य जीवनम्। दण्डनीतिस्त्रयी विद्या तेन लोको भवत्युत॥
In this world the chief professions of men are agriculture, the rearing of cows and trade. But in the next world, the acquaintance in ethics and the three special branches of knowledge (the three Vedas) prove most conducive.

कर्म शूद्रे कृषिर्वैश्ये संग्रामः क्षत्रिये स्मृतः। ब्रह्मचर्यं तपो मन्त्राः सत्यं च ब्राह्मणे सदा॥
Service of other three classes has been the fixed duty of the Shudra. Agriculture has been fixed for the Vaishyas; and fighting has been ordained for the Kshatriyas. The vow of Brahmacharya, devotion, repetition of the mantras and truthfulness are always to be observed by the Brahmanas.

राजा प्रशास्ति धर्मेण स्वकर्मनिरताः प्रजाः। विकर्माणश्च ये केचित् तान् युनक्ति स्वकर्मसु॥
The king should govern, in accordance with the dictates of virtue, the subjects, who always stick to their fixed profession. He should also appoint men to their own profession, who have really fallen from it.

भेतव्यं हि सदा राज्ञः प्रजानामधिपा हि ते। वारयन्ति विकर्मस्थं नृपा मृगमिवेषुभिः॥
The king should always be feared by his subjects; because he is their lord. The kings, again, should check their subject, who has gone away from his fixed profession, even as they restrain the deer by the arrows.

जनकस्येह विप्रर्षे विकर्मस्थो न विद्यते। स्वकर्मनिरता वर्णाश्चत्वारोऽपि द्विजोत्तम॥
O twice-born sage, O best of the Brahmanas, there is none here in the kingdom of king Janaka, who has fallen from his ordained duties. In fact, all the four classes strictly follow their respective duties.

स एष जनको राजा दुर्वृत्तमपि चेत् सुतम्। दण्ड्यं दण्डे निक्षिपति तथा न ग्लाति धार्मिकम्।२९॥
Janaka is such a king that, even if his son be a cruel and a criminal one, he puts him under punishment. But he never inflicts penalty upon the virtuous.

सुयुक्तचारो नृपतिः सर्वं धर्मेण पश्यति। श्रीश्च राज्यं च दण्डश्च क्षत्रियाणां द्विजोत्तम॥
With the assistance of the spies appointed by him, he casts a virtuous look upon all things. O best of the regenerate ones, prosperity, kingdom and the power of inflicting punishment rest with the Kshatriyas.

राजानो हि स्वधर्मेण श्रियमिच्छन्ति भूयसीम्। सर्वेषामेव वर्णानां त्राता राजा भवत्युत॥
Indeed, the kings, practising their own special virtues, crave for immense prosperity. In fact, the king is the preserver of all the four classes.

परेण हि हतान् ब्रह्मन् वराहमहिषानहम्। न स्वयं हन्मि विप्रर्षे विक्रीणामि सदात्वहम्॥
O regenerate one, I never slay the hogs and buffaloes myself. They are slain by others. O twice-born sage, only I always sell their flesh afterwards.

न भक्षयामि मांसानि ऋतुगामी तथा ह्यहम्। सदोपवासी च तथा नक्तभोजी सदा द्विज॥
I never eat flesh myself. Really I have an intercourse with my wife during her season. O twice-born one, I always fast during the day and eat only during the night.

अशीलश्चापि पुरुषो भूत्वा भवति शीलवान्। प्राणिहिंसारतश्चापि भवते धार्मिकः पुनः॥
A person, being born bad, may be of good character. Again, he may turn out virtuous, even if he be a slayer of animals by birth or profession.

व्यभिचारानरेन्द्राणां धर्मः संकीर्यते महान्। अधर्मो वर्धते चापि संकीर्यन्ते ततः प्रजाः॥
Virtue diminishes in strength on account of the misconduct of the kings, and sin becomes predominant. Thereon the subjects grow less.

भेरुण्डा वामनाः कुब्जाः स्थूलशीर्षास्तथैव च। क्लीबाश्चान्धाश्च बधिरा जायन्तेऽत्युच्चलोचनाः॥
Then also the formidable monsters, dwarfs and those, who have crooked backs and wide heads and those, who have lost the power of procreation, the dead and blind persons as also those, who have their eye-sight paralysed, begin to take birth.

पार्थिवानामधर्मत्वात् प्रजानामभवः सदा। स एष राजा जनकः प्रजा धर्मेण पश्यति॥
In consequence of the criminality of the rulers of the earth, the subjects undergo continuous harms. But Janaka is such a monarch, that he looks upon his subjects with virtuous eyes.

अनुगृहणन् प्रजाः सर्वा स्वधर्मनिरताः सदा। ये चैव मां प्रशंसन्ति ये च निन्दन्ति मानवाः॥ सर्वान् सुपरिणीतेन कर्मणा तोषयाम्यहम्।
He is ever kind to all his subjects, who perform their fixed duties. As for myself, those who praise me or those men who blame me, all of them I satisfy with deeds well done.

ये जीवन्ति स्वधर्मेण संयुञ्जन्ति च पार्थिवाः॥ न किंचिदुपजीवन्ति दान्ता उत्थानशीलिनः।
But those kings, who lead their lives in the strict observance of their duties and are ever busy (in the performance of honest deeds) and who can bear austerity and possess smartness and promptitude, never depend upon anything for their support.

शक्त्यानदानं सततं तितिक्षा धर्मनित्यता॥ यथार्ह प्रति पूजा च सर्वभूतेषु वै सदा। त्यागान्नान्यत्र मर्त्यानां गुणास्तिष्ठन्ति पूरुषे॥
Giving away food incessantly to the best of one's power, patience and firm belief in virtue, necessary regard for all creatures always, these virtues are present only in that person, who has wholly abandoned the world (the worldly pleasures); but in none else.

मृषा वादं परिहरेत् कुर्यात् प्रियमयाचितः। न च कामान्न संरम्भान्न द्वेषाद् धर्ममुत्सृजेत्॥
One should do away with falsehood. He should render good to all without being asked. He should never forsake virtue out of lust or anger or malice.

प्रिये नातिभृशं हृष्येदप्रिये न च संज्वरेत्। न मुह्येदर्थकृच्छ्रेषु न च धर्मं परित्यजेत्॥
One should not express unnatural joy at good fortune or succumb under calamities. He should not grow dispirited, when overpowered by poverty or forsake his virtue when so overpowered.

कर्म चेत्किंचिदन्यत् स्यादितरन्न तदाचरेत्। यत् कल्याणमभिध्यायेत् तत्रात्मानं नियोजयेत्॥
If on a certain occasion one commits a wrong, he should not commit it again. One should direct his soul to what contributes to the happiness of others.

न पापे प्रतिपाप: स्यात् साधुरेव सदा भवेत्। आत्मनैव हतः पापो यः पापं कर्तुमिच्छति॥
There should be no wrong over wrong; rather one should deal honestly. The sinful person, who desires to commit a crime, is slain by himself.

कर्म चैतदसाधूनां वृजिनानामसाधुवत्। न धर्मोऽस्तीति मन्वानाः शुचीनवहसन्ति ये॥ अश्रद्दधाना धर्मस्य ते नश्यन्ति न संशयः। महादृतिरिवाघ्मातः पापो भवति नित्यदा॥
By committing a crime one becomes wicked and dishonest. Those who consider that there is no virtue or those, who laugh at the pure and good, these vicious men undoubtedly find decay in the long run. The wicked person daily grows flatulent, even as the leather bag inflated with wind.

मूढानामवलिप्तानामसारं भावितं भवेत्। दर्शयत्यन्तरात्मा तं दिवा रूपमिवांशुमान्॥
The ideas of those, who are destitute of all sensibilities and who also are most worldly, are worthless. The inner soul points him out (as a fool), even as the sun discovers all features during the day.

न लोके राजते मूर्खः केवलात्मप्रशंसया। अपि चेह श्रिया हीनः कृतविद्यः प्रकाशते॥
The fool cannot shine in this world only by praising himself. Rather the learned man, even if he be dirty and anointed, shines gloriously in this world.

अब्रुवन् कस्यचिनिन्दामात्मपूजामवर्णयन्। न कश्चिद् गुणसम्पन्नः प्रकाशो भुवि दृश्यते॥
He never speaks ill of any one; nor does he utter his own praise. No person is found on earth, who shines with all the excellent qualities.

विकर्मणा तप्यमानः पापाद् विपरिमुच्यते। न तत् कुर्यां पुनरिति द्वितीयात् परिमुच्यते॥
The person, who repents for his sins, is freed from them. If one declares that he would not commit the sin again, he is delivered from committing a second one.

कर्मणा येन तेनेह पापाद् द्विजवरोत्तमा एवं श्रुतिरियं ब्रह्मन् धर्मेषु प्रतिदृश्यते॥
O best and foremost of the Brahmanas, he may also be saved from sin by the performance of any one of the ordained acts. O Brahmana, this is Shruti, which may be referred to as one this relating to virtue.

पापान्यबुद्धवेह पुरा कृतानि प्राग् धर्मशीलोऽपि विहन्ति पश्चात्। धर्मो राजन् नुदते पूरुषाणां यत् कुर्वते पापमिह प्रमादात्॥
A person, who was formerly virtuous, having committed sins out of ignorance, can destroy those sins afterwards. O monarch, the virtue of persons shines again (drives off all sins), if sins are committed out of mistake.

पापं कृत्वा हि मन्येत नाहमस्मीति पूरुषः। तं तु देवाः प्रपश्यन्ति स्वस्यैवान्तर पूरुषः॥
After having committed a sin, one should consider that he is no longer a man. The gods behold his sin, as also the monitor that is within him.

चिकीर्षेदेव कल्याणं श्रद्दधानोऽनसूयकः। वसनस्येव छिद्राणि साधूनां विवृणोति यः॥
The person, who with piety and without detestation, hides the faults of the honest, like holes in his own garment surely desires to provide for the means of salvation.

पापं चेत् पुरुषः कृत्वा कल्याणमभिपद्यते। मुच्यते सर्वपापेभ्यो महाभ्रेणेव चन्द्रमाः॥
After having committed the sin, if a person really seeks salvation, he is delivered from all his sins, even as the moon looks bright after it has come out of the clouds.

यथाऽऽदित्यः समुद्यन् वै तमः पूर्वं व्यपोहति। एवं कल्याणमातिष्ठन् सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते॥
Thus seeking salvation, a man is freed from all his sins, even as the sun, upon rising, displays its lustre after it has driven off all darkness.

पापानां विद्ध्यधिष्ठान् लोभमेव द्विजोत्तम। लुब्धाः पापं व्यवस्यन्ति नरा नातिबहुश्रुताः॥
O best of the twice-born ones, do you know that temptation forms the ground-work of all sins. Men, that are destitute of enough of knowledge, having been given to temptation, commit sins.

अधर्मा धर्मरूपेण तृणैः कूपा इवावृताः। तेषां दमः पवित्राणि प्रलापा धर्मसंश्रिताः। सर्वं हि विद्यते तेषु शिष्टाचारः सुदुर्लभः॥
Sinful persons hide themselves under the guise of virtue, even as the wells remain undiscovered on account of the grasses growing over and covering them. The selfcontrol, which they seem to possess, their holiness, their speeches regarding virtue, all these are witnessed in them. But good behaviours are hardly found in them.

मार्कण्डेय उवाच स तु विप्रो महाप्राज्ञो धर्मव्याधमपृच्छत। शिष्टाचारं कथमहं विद्यामिति नरोत्तम॥
Markandeya said : Indeed, that greatly wise Brahmana asked the virtuous flower, saying, "O foremost of men, how shall I know the the virtuous behaviours?"

एतदिच्छामि भद्रं ते श्रोतुं धर्मभृतां वर। त्वत्तो महामते व्याध तद् ब्रवीहि यथातथम्॥
O best of virtuous persons, you are blessed! I desire to hear this from you. O lofty-minded one, O Fowler, tell me the details of it truly.

व्याध उवाच यज्ञो दानं तपो वेदाः सत्यं च द्विजसत्तम। पञ्चैतानि पवित्राणि शिष्टाचारेषु सर्वदा॥
The Fowler said : O foremost of the regenerate ones, sacrifice, gift, austerity, the study of the Vedas and truthfulness, these five holy things are always noticed. in . virtuous conduct. over

कामक्रोधौ वशे कृत्वा दम्भं लोभमनार्जवम्। धर्ममित्येव संतुष्टास्ते शिष्टाः शिष्टसम्मताः॥
Having control desires, anger, haughtiness, avarice and wickedness, those who take pleasure in virtue because it is virtue, are, in the opinion of the honest and wise, really reckoned to be virtuous.

न तेषां विद्यतेऽवृत्तं यज्ञस्वाध्यायशीलिनाम्। आचारपालनं चैव द्वितीयं शिष्टलक्षणम्॥
Those persons who perform sacrifices and are ever devoted to the study of Vedas, have no behaviours other than what are practised by the virtuous. Indeed good behaviours form the second attribute of the pious.

गुरुशुश्रूषणां सत्यमक्रोधो दानमेव च। एतच्चतुष्टयं ब्रह्मन् शिष्टाचारेषु नित्यदा॥
O Brahmana, rendering services to the superiors, truthfulness, worthlessness and gift, these four are ever present in those, who are really virtuous.

शिष्टाचारे मनः कृत्वा प्रतिष्ठाप्य च सर्वशः। यामयं लभते वृत्तिं सा न शक्या हतोऽन्यथा॥
Once can wholly obtain credit by directing the heart towards virtuous behaviours. This he gains only be practising the above four; Otherwise to gain this becomes impossible.

वेदस्योपनिषत् सत्यं सत्यस्योपनिषद् दमः। दमस्योपनिषत् त्यागः शिष्टाचारेषु नित्यदा॥
Truth constitutes the essence of the Vedas. Control over passions constitutes the essence of truth. And self-denial (refraining from the worldly enjoyments) forms the essence of selfcontrol. These attributes are always present in a virtuous conduct.

ये तु धर्मानसूयन्ते बुद्धिमोहान्विता नराः। अपथा गच्छतां तेषामनुयाता च पीड्यते॥
Those persons, who, being intelligent and full of delusions, hate these virtues, surely tread in the sinful path. The men who follow them fall in the abyss of decay.

ये तु शिष्टाः सुनियताः श्रुतित्यागपरायणाः। धर्मपन्थानमारूढाः सत्यधर्मपरायणाः॥
They, who are virtuous and are devoted to the observance of the vows, to the Shrutis and to self-denial; and they who have ascended the paths of virtue and are engaged in speaking truth and observing virtues;

नियच्छन्ति परां बुद्धिं शिष्टाचारान्विता जनाः। उपाध्यायमते युक्ताः स्थित्या धर्मार्थदर्शिनः॥
They, who are endued with the virtuous behaviours; they, who follow the orders of the preceptors; and they, who minutely observe the import of the scriptures, obtain the highest intelligence.

नास्तिकान् भिन्नमर्यादान् क्रूरान् पापमतौ स्थितान्। त्यज तान् ज्ञानमाश्रित्य धार्मिकानुपसेव्य च॥
Forsake the atheists, who are notorious, wicked and always entertain cruel ideas. Take shelter under knowledge and always worship those, that are virtuous.

कामलोभग्रहाकी) पञ्चेन्द्रियजला नदीम्। नावं धृतिमयीं कृत्वा जन्मदुर्गाणि संत॥
By means of the boat of endurance you cross over that river, which is replete with such creatures as the desires and temptations. Its waters are the fine senses and the shoals found therein are the successive births.

क्रमेण संचितो धर्मो बुद्धियोगमयो महान्। शिष्टाचारे भवेत् साधू रागः शुक्लेव वाससि।॥
As great is virtue or as it consists in the practice of intelligence and yoga, it looks very beautiful, when acquired and added to a virtuous behaviour, like the dye on a white garment.

अहिंसा सत्यवचनं सर्वभूतिहतं परम्। अहिंसा परमो धर्मः स च सत्ये प्रतिष्ठितः। सत्ये कृत्वा प्रतिष्ठां तु प्रवर्तन्ते प्रवृत्तयः॥
Absence of malice and truthfulness are most beneficial to all creatures. Absence of malice constitutes the chief virtue, which, again, is founded upon truth. Indeed, all our desirabilities find their scope, when they are all based upon truth.

सत्यमेव गरीयस्तु शिष्टाचारनिषेवितम्। आचारश्च सतां धर्मः संतश्चाचारलक्षणाः॥
Truth is the supreme virtue, which is specially adopted by the the pious. Good behaviour forms the peculiar virtue of the honest and the wise. Those, that are holy, possess good conduct.

यो यथाप्रकृतिर्जन्तुः स स्वां प्रकृतिमश्नुते। पापात्मा क्रोधकामादीन् दोषानापनोत्यनात्मवान्॥
Every creature frames principles of his own according to his inherent tendency. The vicious man, who can not restrain his own self, becomes subject to these vices, viz., desires, wrath and others.

आरम्भो न्याययुक्तो यः स हि धर्म इति स्मृतः। अनाचारस्त्वधर्मेति एतच्छिष्टानुशासनम्॥
It is an immortal maxim that justice constitutes virtue. The virtuous say that evil behaviours constitute sin.

अक्रुद्ध्यन्तोऽनसूयन्तो निरहकारमत्सराः। ऋजवः शमसम्पन्नाः शिष्टाचारा भवन्ति ते॥
Those men are reckoned to be virtuous, who never show wrath, pride or haughtiness and malice or whose conduct is ever marked by simplicity and quiet due.

विद्यवृद्धाः शुतयो वृत्तवन्तो मनस्विनः। गुरुशुश्रूषवो दान्ताः शिष्टाचारा भवन्त्युत॥
Those again, are said to possess virtuous conduct, who carefully follow the rites laid down in the three Vedas; who are holy; who possess piety and sacred character; who serve the superiors; and who also have the power of restraining the self.

तेषामहीनसत्त्वानां दुष्कराचारकर्मणाम्। स्वैः कर्मभिः सत्कृतानां घोरत्वं सम्प्रणश्यति॥
The actions and behaviours of those great men are difficult of acquisition. The sins of those men, who are made pure by means of their own actions, die out of themselves.

तं सदाचारमाश्चर्यं पुराणं शाश्वतं ध्रुवम्। धर्मं धर्मेण पश्यन्तः स्वर्ग यान्ति मनीषिणः॥
This pious behaviour is most wonderful, ancient, inchangeable and eternal. The wise men's who with sanctity lead a virtuous life secure heaven.

आस्तिका मानहीनाश्च द्विजातिजनपूजकाः। श्रुतवृत्तोपसम्पन्नाः सन्तः स्वर्गनिवासिनः॥
The holy men, who are atheists, as also who are unaustentatious and who are respectful towards the degenerate persons and who, again, are familiar with the holy rites, are deserved to live in heaven.

वेदोक्तः परमो धर्मो धर्मशास्त्रेषु चापरः। शिष्टाचारश्च शिष्टानां त्रिविधं धर्मलक्षणम्।
The explanation of virtue is threefold. The first is called the supreme virtue, which is inculcated in the Vedas. The second is what is laid down in Dharmashastras. The third is called the honest behaviour, which is observed by the pious.

धारणं चापि विद्यानां तीर्थानामवगाहनम्॥ क्षमा सत्यार्जवं शौचं सतामाचारदर्शनम्।
Crossing over (the ocean of) knowledge, the performance of ablutions in the places of pilgrimage, forgiveness, truthfulness, simplicity, sacredness are the characteristics of virtuous conduct.

सर्वभूतदयावन्तो अहिंसानिरताः सदा॥ परुषं च न भाषन्ते सदा सन्तो द्विजप्रियाः।
Those who, are king to all creatures and who are never malignant and who never speak ill of anybody, are always dear to the twice-born ones.

शुभानामशुभानां च कर्मणां फलसंचये॥ विपाकमभिजानन्ति ते शिष्टाः शिष्टसम्मताः। न्यायोपेता गुणोपेताः सर्वलोकहितैषिणः॥ सन्तः स्वर्गजितः शुक्लाः संनिविष्टाश्च सत्पथे।
Who are familiar with the results of good or evil actions, are reckoned by the wise to be virtuous. Again, those who are just and virtuous and well disposed towards all and who are honest and have obtained heaven, who possess sacred characters and constantly tread in the path of virtue.

दातारः संविभक्तारो दीनानुग्रहकारिणः॥ सर्वपूज्याः श्रुतधनास्तथैव च तपस्विनः। सर्वभूतदयावन्तस्ते शिष्टाः शिष्टसम्मताः॥
Who are liberal in gifts and unselfish, who show favour to the distressed and who are revered by all, who possess the wealth of knowledge, who are devotees and who are kind to all creatures, are virtuous according to the honest and wise.

दानशिष्टाः सुखाँल्लोकानाप्नुवन्तीह च श्रियम्। पीडया च कलत्रस्य भृत्यानां च समाहिताः॥ अतिशक्त्या प्रयच्छन्ति सन्त: सद्भिः समागताः। लोकयात्रां च पश्यन्तो धर्ममात्महितानि च॥
The persons, who are charitable, secure prosperity in this world and abodes of happiness, in the next. The virtuous men, if approached and solicited by the honest and wise, give away alms to them with the best of his power, even at the denial of the comforts of his wife and dependents. Looking to their own interest and having an eye upon virtue and the ways of the world.

एवं सन्तो वर्तमानास्त्वेधन्ते शाश्वतीः समाः। अहिंसा सत्यवचनमानृशंस्यमथार्जवम्॥ अद्रोहो नाभिमानश्च ह्रीस्तितिक्षा दमः शमः। धीमन्तो धृतिमन्तश्च भूतानामनुकम्पकाः॥ अकामद्वेषसंयुक्तास्ते सन्तो लोकसाक्षिणः।
The men, who thus practise virtue, obtain the greatest amount of virtue through eternal ages. Persons, who possess the attributes of truthfulness, abstention from injuring others, modestly and simplicity and who are not malicious and proud, who are mild and selfsacrificing, who have self-control and forbearance, intelligence and patience, who are kind towards all creatures and who are free from desires and malice, are said to be the witnesses of the world.

त्रीण्येव तु पदान्याहुः सतां व्रतमनुत्तमम्॥ न चैव दुह्येद् दद्याच्च सत्यं चैव सदा वदेत्।
These three are reckoned to constitute the highest way of the pious, viz., a man must not offend anybody. He must be charitable. Also he must speak the truth always. Those great men of highest virtue.

सर्वत्र च दयावन्तः सन्तः करुणवेदिनः॥ गच्छन्तीह सुसंतुष्टा धर्मपन्थानमुत्तमम्। शिष्टाचाराः महात्मानो येषां धर्मः सुनिश्चितः॥
Who are kind on all occasions and who are filled with compassion, obtain the greatest contentment and ascend the superior path of virtue; and whose acquisition of virtue is most certain.

अनसूया क्षमा शान्तिः संतोष: प्रियवादिता। कामक्रोधपरित्याग: शिष्टाचारनिषेवणम्॥ कर्म च श्रुतसम्पन्नं सतां मार्गमनुत्तमम्।
Harmlessness, forgiveness, peacefulness, contentment, agreeable speech, giving away passions and excitements, the service of the virtuous characters and actions performed in accordance with the dictates of the Shastra constitute the superior path of the honest and the wise.

शिष्टाचार निषेवन्ते नित्यं धर्ममनुव्रताः॥ प्रज्ञाप्रासादमारुह्य मुच्यन्ते महतो भयात्। प्रेक्षन्तो लोकवृत्तानि विविधानि द्विजोत्तम॥ अतिपुण्यानि पापानि तानि द्विजवरोत्तम।
Those who constantly follow the path of virtue and daily worship the virtuous, can ascend the palace of knowledge. It is they only who are freed from that greatest terror (rebirth). O best of Brahmanas, it is they only who have the power of observing the several aspects of human nature.

एतत् ते सर्वमाख्यातं यथाप्रज्ञं यथाश्रुतम्। शिष्टाचारगुणं ब्रह्मन् पुरस्कृत्य द्विजर्षभ॥
O foremost of Brahmanas I have thus related to you all about the virtuous as well as the vicious, behaviours according to my own knowledge or as I have heard on the matter. O Brahmana, O foremost of the twice-born ones, I have done justice to the subject of virtuous conduct, which I had introduced.